St. Andrew’s Church, Kyiv, Ukraine
"Saint Andrew erecting the cross on the hills of the Dnieper River", a prophecy of the city of Kyiv by an anonymous artist from the Radzivill Chronicle, or Königsberg Chronicle, a 15th-century copy of a 13th-century original monumental work revealing the history of Kievan Rus and its neighbors from the fifth to the early thirteenth century in pictorial form, representing events described in the manuscript with more than six hundred colour illustrations. Its name is derived from the Princes Radziwiłł of Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), who kept it in their Nesvizh Castle in the 17th and 18th centuries. (copyright and source Wikipedia).
Source: By Ancient [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons
The ancient chronicles tell that Andrew sailed up the Dnieper river and stopped at the hills on its bank. In the morning, by waking up, he told to his disciples: “Can you see these hills? Here the God’s mercy will shine and the great city will be settled, in which God will build many churches.” Then Andrew went up the hills, blessed them and put a cross at the top, then prayed to God and went down the hill, where afterwards Kiev was founded.
On the very hill, where Andrew had put the cross, for centuries there were several attempts to build a church in honour of the Saint and the legend. And every time the constructions were either burnt, or ruined. In 1744 the Russian Empress Elizabeth put the first stone into the foundation of the new church, which was built by 1754 by her order. But the beautiful church has been anyway suffering from the continuous soil slipping on the hill, and three times was damaged by the lightning, so the restoration works are almost usual for it.
One legend tells, there was a sea where the river Dnieper flows today, and when Andrew put the cross, the water went down, but some of it remained anyway down the hill and formed a well under the church. It is believed that the first sound of the church bells may wake up the water in the well, which can flood the city and the entire region. Perhaps, for this reason there are no bells in the St Andrew’s Church.
Royal Burgh of St Andrews, Scotland
St Andrews is a university town and former royal burgh, located on the east coast of Fife council area, in Scotland. According to the legend, the town took its actual name thanks to a Greek monk St Regulus, who was directed by an angel to take St Andrew’s remains far away from Constantinople for safe-keeping and finally, caught by the storm, brought them to the shore of Scotland, exactly to the place near the town. This legend for years attracted many pilgrims to the place, and consequently St Andrew was proclaimed the patron of the whole Scotland. The town of St Andrews became the important religious center of great influence in Scottish political circles.
In 1158 St Andrews’ Cathedral was founded in the town, which served as the seat of the Diocese of St Andrews, the largest in Scotland in the Middle Ages.
Around 1200 was erected St Andrews’ Castle, which stood above the sea shore and hosted bishops and kings. One part of the rock below the Castle was carved into the Bottle Dungeon – a prison for the local criminals, who were under the Bishop’s jurisdiction. After the Reformation in Scotland there was the period, when people accused of witchcraft were thrown into a part of the sea below the Castle, called “Witch Lake” consequently. If the accused persons drowned in the waters, they were declared innocent. But in case they managed to reach the shore and survive, they were convicted of witchcraft and burnt.
In 1689 the office of the Bishop in the Castle was abolished, and the Castle itself fell into ruin.
Among the other sights is the University of St Andrews, the oldest one in Scotland, founded in 1413. It is also considered, that golf originated in this town, due to the earliest record of the game dating back to 1552 and sealed by the Archbishop of St Andrews.
Image: "etching of St Andrews Castle, Fife" by Hedley Fitton (1859 - 1929), English engraver and printmaker noted mainly for his architectural etchings.
Source: By Hedley Fitton 1859 - 1929 (http://thistlefineart.com/Fitton.htm) [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons